Condensed Milk + Lemon Icebox Pie

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Hi! Is it freezing where you are? It sure is here. How are you holding up? We have basically been staying cozied up in our apartment. And I find the time of year between Halloween and Christmas so strange. I know there is Thanksgiving and all but, while I’m excited for green bean casserole, I really just want to get my Christmas tree up, you know? Anyway, not wanting to leave the house for any reason has its perks. It gives me a lot of time (too much time?) for food history research. For example, I few weeks ago I started reading about condensed milk history, and thinking to myself, “Man, wouldn’t other people like to learn about condensed milk history?” And so, now you’re going to have to bear with me for the next 500 or so words…

Before refrigeration, and the advent of condensed milk, dairy had a very short shelf life, only a few hours. In 1851, Gail Borden was returning to the US from England on a ship. During the voyage, the cows aboard the ship got sick and eventually died. Before dying, however, passengers were still drinking the cows’ milk. This led to the death of several children who had consumed the milk, leaving a lasting impact on Borden. He was determined to find a way to make milk last longer and make it, more importantly, safer.

Elsewhere in the world, confectioner and food preservationist Nicholas Appert had already been condensing milk in his native France since the 1830s, but the method had not yet made it to the United States. (Even Marco Polo was said to have encountered a version of condensed milk during his travels, citing the Tatars use of “milk paste,” though historians believe it was likely made from already fermented, not fresh, milk.) Borden began developing his own technique for making milk shelf-stable shortly after returning from his traumatic voyage. Borden failed several times at creating a product he was happy with before he was successful. Finally, he thought of using a vacuum pan to concentrate the milk, borrowing a method used by the Shakers for condensing fruit juice. The technique worked and, after adding sugar as a preservative, Borden was able to make his condensed milk available to the public. By the late 1850s, Borden’s brand of shelf-stable milk, sold as Eagle Brand, was considered the pinnacle of purity. It’s likely this was due not only to its indispensability and therefore trustworthiness to the everyday user, but also because Borden took the production of his dairy very seriously, imposing the “Dairyman’s Ten Commandments” on the farmers who supplied him with his milk, which included washing their cows’ udders before they were milked, and thoroughly cleaning and drying the strainers they used for the milk each morning and night. In a time when hand-washing was not even commonplace for doctors, Borden’s rules likely seemed extreme.

While condensed milk began growing rapidly in popularity soon after its creation, it was during the Civil War in the 1860s that condensed milk became an invaluable ration to troops, solidifying the product’s place throughout the country. Its popularity and reach grew when, in Europe, Charles and George Page, two brothers from Illinois, opened Europe’s first condensed milk plant in the mid 1860s, after learning the technique from Borden. Hoping to match Borden’s American success on the continent, their company eventually merged with Heinrich Nestle’s baby formula business. Through a series of mergers and acquisitions, these companies would become Nestlé, the world’s largest food and beverage company.

Thanks to Borden’s innovation and commitment to quality, condensed milk gained popularity in everyday households, and over time, it became especially popular as a dessert ingredient. This development ensured its continued success even after the invention of the refrigerator, which might have made it obsolete. This all brings us to today’s recipe, a condensed milk dessert favorite: Icebox Pie.

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Lemon Icebox Pie
Makes one 9-inch pie.

Ingredients:
For the crust: 10 full sheets of graham crackers
6 tbsp melted butter
3 tbsp sugar
1/4 tsp salt
For the filling: 1 14 oz. can of sweetened condensed milk
4 egg yolks
3/4 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice
Optional for topping: Freshly whipped cream
Lemon zest

Instructions: 

Break the graham cracker sheets into a food processor, then pulse until only small pieces remain. Add the butter, sugar, and salt, until the mixture is fine and holds when squeezed together in the palm of your hand.

Press the mixture into the bottom and up the sides of a shallow, 8-inch pie pan. Place the pie in the freezer for 10 minutes. While the pie is in the freezer, begin to preheat your oven to 350.

After 10 minutes in the freezer, bake the crust for 10 minutes.

While the pie is baking, beat together the condensed milk and egg yolks in a large bowl until combined. Add in the lemon juice and continue to beat until thoroughly combined and no streaks remain.

Pour the filling directly into the hot/warm pie crust, and continue baking at 350 degrees for 15 minutes.

Place in the refrigerator for at least 3 hours.

Top with whipped cream and a sprinkle of lemon zest before serving, optional.

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Yes, some traditional icebox pies (like Key Lime) would have contained egg yolks, and would not have been cooked at all. I cooked mine, just enough to make sure the eggs were safe. It’s still a very hands-off pie. It’s very similar to, but maybe even better than,  my old favorite, Lemon Atlantic Beach Pie, because it is insanely light and lemony.

It is not an over-exaggeration to say that Gail Borden saved thousands, if not millions of lives with his condensed milk invention, both in homes and on the battlefield. I’m sure he didn’t predict that it would become a dessert darling, but we’ll call that a happy accident.

Stay warm, my friends!

Happy Halloween + Flies’ Graveyard

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Happy Halloween! This is my favorite, favorite holiday, and I’m so excited. We did go out last Saturday, when it was pouring rain, and today we are waking up to snow, so… welcome to Halloween in the Midwest.

Today we’re going to talk a little bit about the origins of Halloween in the United States, many of which we owe to ancient traditions in Ireland and Scotland. The origins of Halloween can be traced back to the pre-Christian Gaelic festival of Samhain, or summer’s end. While Samhain was determined by the end of the harvest, it was also known as a time when feasts were held for dead loved ones, and the spirits of the Otherworld could enter this world. Because of this belief, bonfires were a common part of a Samhain celebration, as they were thought to protect humans and ward off any evil spirits who crossed the boundary.

Because fire was regarded as protective, in Ireland, root vegetables were carved–mostly turnips in Scotland–into faces, and a light was placed inside to ward off evil spirits. Still used today, the name Jack O’Lantern comes from an Irish legend about a man named “Stingy Jack,” a drunk with such a bad reputation that the devil himself sought him out. According to some variations of the story, Jack twice tricked the devil into buying him food and drink, both times escaping the devil’s plans for him. Tricking the devil again by striking a deal that he would never be taken to Hell, Jack lived to old age. However, at his death, he was turned away from the gates of Heaven for his bad lifestyle. He then attempted to enter Hell, but was also turned away, the devil now keeping his promise to never take him. So Stingy Jack is forced to wander the netherworld for eternity, with only an ember inside of a turnip to light his way.

Even trick-or-treating has its origins in Samhain. Known as “mumming” or “guising,” the practice involved people dressing in costume and going door to door to receive treats. It’s said that the disguises were worn in an attempt to walk among the supernatural beings who had entered the world through the weakened threshold. Later, this became a practice for children, who would go door to door, sometimes performing songs or tricks in exchange for treats or coins.

Over time, with the arrival of Christianity, the celebrations of Samhain began to meld with All Hallow’s Eve, which was the night before the celebration of All Saints’ Day on November 1st. Halloween traditions gained traction in the United States with the mass arrival of Irish and Scottish immigrants in the 19th century.

In honor of the festival of Samhain, today’s recipe is a treat from Britain often called a fruit slice, but alternatively known by the ghoulish name, “flies’ graveyard.” (Maybe Halloween is the only day I could get away with making such a gross and peculiar dessert. Halloween is good for so many reasons.) This dessert, also known as a flies’ cemetery, is called such because the filling, which is usually composed of currants or raisins, looks like dead flies caught in a trap. Yum.

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Flies Graveyard
Makes 9-16 squares.

Ingredients:
For pastry: 1 3/4 cups flour, plus more for rolling dough
1/4 tsp salt
3/4 tsp baking powder
1/2 cup unsalted butter, room temperature
1/2 cup confectioner’s sugar
3/4 tsp lemon zest
3/4 tsp vanilla extract
1 egg

For filling: 2 1/4 cups cranberries
1 1/4 cup dark raisins
1/3 cup water
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 tbsp, plus 2 tsp all-purpose flour
1 tsp lemon juice
1/8 tsp lemon zest
1/8 tsp salt
1/2 tsp vanilla

For top of pastry: 1 egg
1 tbsp milk or cream
2 tsp sugar

Instructions: 

In a medium bowl, sift together flour, salt, and baking soda.

Add butter and sugar to a large bowl and beat until very smooth and almost completely white in color, about five minutes.

Add the lemon zest, vanilla, and egg, and beat until just incorporated.

Add the flour mixture to the sugar mixture in three batches, beating each batch until it’s just incorporated.

After you’ve added all the flour, begin pulling the mixture together. Divide in half. Form both portions into a disk. Wrap the two disks with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 1/2 hours, or as long as overnight.

Place the cranberries into a food processor (you can also chop by hand). Buzz a few times until the cranberries are in smaller pieces, but not yet purified. Add the raisins (if using a food processor) and buzz just a time or two to slightly break up the raisins. Add both to a heavy bottomed saucepan. To the saucepan, add water, sugar, flour, lemon juice, lemon zest, and salt. Mix together and then bring to a boil over medium heat, for about 15 minutes total cook time. Remove from heat and stir in vanilla. Allow to cool to room temperature.

While the filling is cooling, roll out one of the disks 1/8-inch thick and place in the bottom of a 8 x 8-inch pan. Gently press to fit the pan, and cut an edge about 1 centimeter up the sides of the pan. Fill this pastry with the cooled filling and spread smooth.

Roll the second disk 1/8-inch thick. Lay it over the pastry filling. Cut the edges off and gently press to the bottom pastry edges to seal it.

Beat the egg with the heavy cream and brush it over the top. Sprinkle with sugar.

Place the pastry in the freezer as you preheat the oven to 375 degrees. Bake for 30-35 minutes, until the top is golden brown.

Allow to cool completely before cutting and serving.

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For my version of this flies’ graveyard, I used a combination of cranberries and raisins–and fly’s eyes, newt’s noses, frog’s ears, and whatever else was on sale during October.

What are you doing for Halloween this year? Do you have kiddies who are dressed to mingle safely with the wandering ghosts? Did you carve any lanterns in honor of the lost soul of Stingy Jack? Will you catch a few flies in your pastry and bake them up crisp? God I love Halloween. Happy ghouling!

National Boston Cream Pie Day

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I don’t know why October 23rd is National Boston Cream Pie Day, but it is! Boston Cream Pie has been on my to-make list for so long. I think I’ve actually tried to do a post on it for several years running, and something always came up. But 2019 is my year in so many ways, that it’s also going to be the year I tackle the Boston Cream Pie post. Strap in.

If you’re unfamiliar, I should first break the news that Boston Cream Pie is not a pie at all. Instead, it’s a two-layer sponge cake, filled with cream, and topped with chocolate ganache. It’s likely, though, that the “pie” part of its name came from the cake being baked in a pie tin. Pies and cakes were often cooked in the same pans in earlier days, and the names would have been used interchangeably.

The Boston Cream Pie is associated most closely with the Parker House Hotel (now the Omni Parker House Hotel) in Boston. More specifically, they can be traced back to one man, Augustine Francois Anezin, a Frenchman who was the head cook at the Hotel. Many records incorrectly listed Anezin’s name as Sanzian, which immediately made me think he was Armenian, instead of French, but it turns out they just got his name wrong. He was definitely French, born around 1824 in Marseilles, France. He didn’t begin his tenure as chef at the Parker House until he was about 40, so his famous pie-cake would’ve been created sometime after 1865, but before he retired in 1881.

However, even though Anezin was responsible for bringing the pie to the Parker House Hotel, he did not invent cream pies (cake). They had already been around for years, but might have been enjoying a bump in popularity around this time. In fact, there is a recipe that dates back to 1864 called “Boston Cream Cakes” in Godey’s Magazine and Lady’s Book, a women’s monthly book published in Philadelphia. The Boston Cream Cakes recipe differs slightly from the Boston Cream Pie recipe that we know today, but it does show how common pudding pies and cakes were in that day. And it is interesting that, even in those early days, a pudding cake was attributed to Boston.

I’ve found no original recipe for Anezin’s Boston cream pie, but it was likely composed of sponge cake leavened with eggs, as baking powders were not yet commonly used in American baking until after the 1860s. And his recipe may or may not have had chocolate on top at the time. What we do know is that it was years before it would become known as Boston Cream Pie. Recipes referencing “Boston Cream Pie” begin popping up in newspapers outside of Boston as early as 1876. These recipes call for a sponge cake to be baked, split and filled with pudding, but with no mention of chocolate on top. Perhaps some credit for the chocolate covered version of the Boston Cream Pie should go to a woman named Maria Parloa, a well-known “domestic scientist” of her time. In 1877, she opened Miss Parloa’s School of Cooking in Boston. Ten years later, Parloa published her book Miss Parloa’s Kitchen Companion. In the book, Parloa has a recipe for “chocolate cream pie,” which appears very similar to what we know today as the Boston cream pie, calling for two rounds of cake, filled with pastry cream, and now with the addition of a chocolate icing topping. While Ms. Parloa’s name isn’t as well-known today, she was considered something of a “celebrity chef” of her time. (So, perhaps the “Boston” in Boston Cream Pie comes from Ms. Parloa’s version of the pudding pie, and her link to the city of Boston, rather than Anezin’s. It’s hard to know without documentation of the original recipe.) Whatever the origin, the pie-cake, topped with chocolate ganache, over time became eponymous with, not the hotel that it is attributed to, but the city of Boston itself. In 1996, it was even declared that Boston Cream Pie was the state dessert of Massachusetts, beating out other local treats, such as the Toll House cookie and Indian pudding.

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Boston Cream Pie
Makes one 8-inch cream pie.

Ingredients:
For cake:
3 eggs
3/4 cups granulated sugar
1/4 tsp salt
1/2 tsp vanilla extract
3/4 cups flour

For pastry cream:
3 egg yolks
1 egg
6 tbsp sugar
3 tbsp cornstarch
1/4 tsp salt
2 cups milk
2 tsp vanilla extract
3 tbsp unsalted butter

For ganache:
4 oz semi-sweet chocolate bar, chopped into small pieces
1/2 cup heavy cream

Instructions: 

For pastry cream: Stir together the yolks, egg, sugar, cornstarch, and salt in a heat-safe bowl until completely combined. Set aside.

Heat the milk in a heavy-bottomed saucepan, until small bubbles just begin to form around the edge of the saucepan. Turn off the heat.

Pour about half of the milk, very slowly, in a thin stream into the egg mixture, whisking rapidly and constantly to temper the eggs. Once the eggs are tempered, pour the egg mixture back into the remaining milk in the saucepan.

Turn the heat back on medium. Whisking constantly, allow the mixture to come to a boil. Once you see bubbles forming, keep mixing for about 1-2 minutes. You should see the mixture becoming thick.

Remove from heat, pour into a clean oven-safe bowl, and put a piece of plastic wrap directly on top of the hot pastry cream. Allow the pastry cream to come to room temperature, then refrigerate for at least two hours before using in your cream pie.

For cake: Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.

Thoroughly grease an 8 x 2-inch round cake pan, and line bottom of the pan with parchment paper.

Beat together the eggs, sugar, salt, and vanilla extract until very pale yellow in color, about 12-15 minutes, with a hand mixer. The mixture should be quite thick.

Sift the flour over the top of the batter in three or four batches, completely mixing the flour in with a wooden spoon between each addition.

Pour the mixture into the greased cake pan and place on the center rack in the oven for 20 minutes.

The top of the cake should be golden on top by this time. Before opening the oven door, turn off the heat and crack the oven door, but do not yet remove the cake. Allow the cake to sit in the oven for 5 minutes.

Remove the cake from the oven and allow to cool upside down on a cooling rack.

Once the cake has cooled completely, carefully remove the cake from the pan. You may need to use a butter knife to loosen the sides of the cake from the pan, even if you greased the pan well.

Slice the cake in half, lengthwise.

Top the bottom half of the cake with the pastry cream, and place the top of the cake on the pastry cream. Place in the fridge while you make the ganache.

For ganache: Place the chopped chocolate in a heat-safe bowl.

Warm the heavy cream in a small saucepan, until you just begin to see bubbles forming around the edge of the pan.

Pour the milk directly over the chopped chocolate. Allow to sit for about 5 minutes.

Stir together the chocolate and the cream until it is fully combined and smooth.

Spoon the ganache over the top of the cake and smooth to the edges, allowing some to drip over the sides.

Enjoy!

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I got lost in the research for this post, because I was fascinated to learn about Maria Parloa, whom I had never heard of before. Also, the recipes that I saw reprinted in newspapers under the name chocolate cream pie seem to be taken verbatim from her book, so it is surprising that she has not traditionally been a part of the Boston cream pie story. The research is a bit thin all around, but I always love to chase these histories, and I also loved making this pie/cake.

Milwaukee Move + Pumpkin Cream Puffs

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Wow, wow, wow. It’s been a while since I posted here, and I am feeling a little rusty. In the two months (yikes!) since my last post, we moved from Chicago to Milwaukee! So I’ve been trying to get my bearings, trying to unpack, and trying to figure out a new kitchen with new light. But I’m back, baby!

Today, I wanted to talk about one of my favorite childhood snacks: Cream puffs! And it turns out, when it comes to cream puff love, I’m not alone. Apparently cream puffs are big business in Wisconsin. They are a hit at the Wisconsin State Fair, where they sell approximately 400,000 cream puffs each year, and have been selling them since 1924,  when they were first sold by the Wisconsin Bakers Association.

The original cream puff recipe is said to have been created by Charles Kremer, a state bakery inspector who lived on the south side of Milwaukee. At the time, the Governor of Wisconsin, John Blaine, was looking for someone to create a dish that would highlight Wisconsin’s dairy industry at the State Fair. He chose Kremer not only because of his job as a bakery inspector, but also because Kremer’s family had recently opened their own bakery. The cream puff was a hit with fairgoers straightaway, and the rest is history.

In my never-ending quest to find some genealogy-food link between dishes and people, I did a little research on Charles Kremer himself. According to census records, he was born in Rhineland, Germany, in 1865. Rhineland borders France, which may give us a hint why Kremer’s family had a cream puff recipe. Cream puff recipes are actually a version of a French profiterole, a pastry made from choux dough, a buttery, egg-based concoction which incorporates no leavening agent. It is said that the recipe for the dough dates all the way back to the 1500s, when it was created by a Florentine chef named Pantarelli or Pantanelli in the French court of King Henry II and his Italian wife, Catherine de Medici. In the early 1800s, French chef Marie-Antoine Careme modified the recipe, creating a more modern version of the profiterole. (Careme even took it a step further by creating the formidable, towering croquembouche.)

The Kremer-profiterole-cream puff connection is, of course, just a hunch. I’ve found no link between the family and a French profiterole recipe, and it should be noted that the cream puff had been popular in the United States since at least the 1850s, with the dessert even showing up in 1851 on a menu from the Revere House in Boston.

For the cream puffs you see here, I’m using my grandma’s recipe, which turned into my mom’s recipe, and is now my recipe. (As for the famous Wisconsin State Fair cream puff, according to those in the know, the recipe has changed little since 1924, though it has been tweaked to account for production quantities.) But to keep them truly seasonal, these are pumpkin-cream filled puffs, topped with a bit of cinnamon cream cheese glaze. (Or, if you’d prefer, you can just dust them with a little powdered sugar, exactly the way I used to have them as a kid, and they will still be delicious!)

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Pumpkin Cream Puffs

Ingredients:
For cream puffs:
1 cup water
1/2 cup butter
1 cup flour
1/4 tsp salt
4 eggs

For pumpkin pudding filling:
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup granulated sugar
1/2 cup pumpkin puree (not pie filling!)
3 tbsp cornstarch
1/8 tsp salt
1/2 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp nutmeg
2 cups whole milk
1/4 cup heavy cream
2 tbsp unsalted butter
1 tsp vanilla

Instructions:

For pumpkin pudding filling: Combine sugars, pumpkin, cornstarch, salt, cinnamon, and nutmeg in a saucepan. Add heavy cream, then begin stirring in milk and turn on stove to medium heat. Stirring constantly, bring mixture to a boil for one minute.

Remove the pan from heat and stir in the butter and vanilla.

Allow to cool slightly before pouring into a heat/refrigerator safe container.

Press plastic wrap directly on to the top of the pudding. Store in the refrigerator until you’re ready to use.

For cream puffs: Preheat oven to 400 degree and line a large cookie sheet with parchment paper.

In a saucepan, combine water and butter and bring to a boil.

Add the flour and salt and stir until the mixture begins to combine and form a ball.

Remove from heat, add to a large glass bowl. Add one egg at a time, stirring to combine. The mixture will slowly come together and, when ready, should be stiff enough to hold the spoon vertical.

Drop 1/4-cup spoonfuls onto the parchment-lined cookie sheet. (I used a pastry bag to pipe them onto the cookie sheet. This step is completely unnecessary, but it makes the puffs slightly more uniform, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Bake for 35 minutes until the puffs are light brown.

Allow cream puffs to cool completely, then poke a hole in one side and pipe the chilled pumpkin pudding into the center. Top with cream cheese glaze, optional. (For cream cheese glaze, combine 4 ounces of room temperature cream cheese, beaten with a few tablespoons of milk, 1/4 cup powdered sugar, 1/2 tsp of vanilla, and 1/4 tsp cinnamon.)

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If you’re looking for more pumpkin fall treat goodness, as well as some sweet pumpkin history, may I direct you to the chocolate ganache-covered pumpkin donuts I made last October. And if you need me, I’ll be looking far ahead to next year’s State Fair where I can pick up a cream puff.

Baked Chocolate Zucchini Doughnuts with Cream Cheese Frosting

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Do you have a million zucchini squashes in your garden right now? It’s the time of the year where they are everywhere, people are giving them away, and trying to figure out different ways to use them.

Though usually thought of as a vegetable, zucchini is actually a fruit that grows from a flower (which can also be eaten). The popularity of zucchini in the United States actually came about in a circuitous way. Zucchini squash has been part of the diet in Mesoamerica for centuries, dating back to at least 5500 BC. Seeds for the squash were likely brought back to Europe with Christopher Columbus, after his travels to the Central and South American coasts. But the particular variety of zucchini that we know in the States was likely not cultivated in northern Italy until around the late 1800s. Shortly afterward, Italian immigrants brought the new varietal of the squash back to North America, around the late 1900s. (The word Americans now use for the fruit, “zucchini,” is the diminutive of the Italian word “zucca” or “gourd,” and is the plural of “zucchino.”)

By the 1920s, people in the United States were being advised to grow the “Italian squash” in their own gardens. When citizens at home were asked to plant “victory gardens” during World Wars I and II, the hearty zucchini was prolific, raising its popularity. Most early recipes for zucchini from the 1920s called for the squash to be boiled and stuffed with bread crumbs and tomato sauce. Popularly used to make zucchini bread now, zucchini baked into bread has only really existed since the 1960s. During this time,  health fads called for the use of zucchini in desserts (as well as brown sugar instead of white) as a healthy way to lose weight.

And, while zucchini may seem to be the most innocent of vegetables, some varieties of zucchini have a toxin in them called cucurbitacins. It is technically a steroid that is present as a defense mechanism for the fruit. The varietals found in the supermarket have had the toxin bred out, but in Germany in 2015, a couple was hospitalized after eating an heirloom variety of zucchini from their neighbor’s garden. (I hope this doesn’t scare you away from your own neighbor’s zucchini bounty!)

With zucchini on the brain, and in the backyard, and on sale at the grocery, I thought I would use up some zucchini in a recipe that mid-century dietitians would have called healthy…chocolate donuts? They’re baked too, so, yes, they’re definitely a health food.

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Baked Chocolate Zucchini Doughnuts with Cream Cheese Frosting
Makes 12 doughnuts.

Ingredients:
1 1/2 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup granulated sugar
1/2 cup cocoa powder
1 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/2 tsp salt
1/3 cup buttermilk
1 egg
1/2 tsp vanilla
1/3 cup vegetable oil
1/2 cup strongly brewed coffee, cooled to room temperature
1 cup zucchini, finely shredded (1-2 medium-to-large zucchinis)

4 oz. cream cheese, room temperature
6 tbsp confectioner’s sugar
1/3-1/2 cup heavy cream
Chocolate sprinkles, chocolate shavings, or mini chocolate chips, optional (but recommended)

Instructions: 

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Lightly coat two six-hole doughnut pans, or one 12-hole doughnut pan, with cooking spray. Set aside.

Cut both ends off of a medium-to-large zucchini. Finely shred, then place the shredded zucchini in two paper towels, or on a cheese cloth. Squeeze out excess water. If the zucchini isn’t completely dry, that’s OK. Measure zucchini for volume after it has been wrung out.

In a large bowl, combine the flour, sugars, cocoa powder, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Whisk to combine.

In a smaller bowl, combine the buttermilk, egg, vanilla, vegetable oil, coffee, and zucchini. Whisk to combine.

Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and stir until just combined, so that no white streaks remain.

Fill a pastry bag with the batter, snip off the end, and fill the cups just over 3/4 of the way full. (You can also carefully spoon the mixture into the pan holes, just be sure to smooth the batter evenly around the holes before baking.)

Bake for 10-12 minutes. Once a toothpick inserted into the doughnuts comes out clean, they’re done.

Allow the doughnuts to sit in the pan to cool for five minutes, before removing them to a wire rack to cool completely before frosting.

Beat together cream cheese, confectioner’s sugar, and heavy cream. Transfer the frosting to a shallow bowl.

Dip each doughnut halfway into the frosting, then top with chocolate sprinkles, chocolate shavings, or mini chocolate chips, if you wish.

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I’m not sure if a recipe where you hide zucchini in a chocolate doughnut actually counts as a seasonal zucchini recipe, but this is a dessert history blog, so here we are. Happy zucchini season!

Alex’s Birthday + Raspberry Alexandertorte

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Hello! I’ve missed you. I had so many posts I wanted to get up this month, but it just got away from me. However, we’ve had some fun and exciting things happening in the Limanowski household (fun for us, probably not fun for you). We visited Detroit for the first time together at the beginning of the month, and had a really awesome time. Detroit’s great! Go visit Detroit! Then we both got sick (not fun or exciting). But in the meantime, we were tooling around with some important planning for our next move in October (fun and exciting, but not yet finalized). Finally, Alex successfully defended his dissertation last week. That’s right! He’s Dr. Limanowski now. And then he celebrated his birthday this weekend. Whew.

In celebration of both of these events, I thought I’d try to sneak in one last July post, before I have to start thinking about what the heck I can make for August! As I have mentioned in the past, Alex is not really a cake enthusiast. He never wants a cake for his birthday. He is, though, an almost-every-other-kind-of-sweet enthusiast. I had been tooling around with a post a while back about the Danish favorite hindsbaersnitter, which translates to “raspberry slice.” It is a popular shortbread pastry in Denmark. In fact, it was said to be Hans Christian Andersen’s favorite dessert. When I told Alex about it, he expressed a lot of interest, especially after I compared it to a fancy Pop-Tart. Then, while doing some research, I realized that the Danish hindsbaersnitter may have actually been a copycat of an earlier pastry from Latvia, known as–ready for this–Alexandertorte. An even earlier form has existed in Finland, since at least 1818, called the Aleksanterin leivokset (Alexander cakes). Both Alexander-based desserts were named to commemorate the visit of a Russian Czar: In Finland, Alexander I; in Riga (Latvia’s capital), Alexander III.

So, name-wise this was obviously a perfect choice. It’s not celebrating a Russian Czar, but it is celebrating a newly-minted doctor, and birthday boy. Even better.

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Raspberry Alexandertorte
5-10 servings.

Ingredients:
2 1/4 – 2 1/2 cups flour, plus more for rolling dough
1/2 tsp salt
1 tsp baking powder
3/4 cup unsalted butter, room temperature
3/4 cup confectioner’s sugar
1 tsp lemon zest
1 tsp vanilla extract
1 egg

1 cup confectioner’s sugar
2 tbsp heavy cream (For pink frosting (optional): use 1 tbsp raspberry juice, and 1 tbsp heavy cream. For juice, combine 1/4 cup raspberries in a small bowl, heat for 30 seconds in microwave and strain through a fine mesh sieve.)

3/4 cup good-quality raspberry jam

Instructions:

In a medium bowl, sift together 2 1/4 cups flour, salt, and baking soda.

Add butter and sugar to a large bowl and beat until very smooth and almost completely white in color, about five minutes.

Add the lemon zest, vanilla, and egg, and beat until just incorporated.

Add the flour mixture to the sugar mixture in three batches, beating each batch until it’s just incorporated. If the mixture is very sticky, you can add the remaining 1/4 cup of flour.

After you’ve added all the flour, begin pulling the mixture together. Divide in half. It may look a bit dry at first, but should come together. There may be some crumbs and that is OK. Form both portions into a disk.

Wrap the two disks with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 1/2 hours, or as long as overnight.

Once refrigerated, preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Line two large cookie sheets with parchment paper.

Keeping one disk refrigerated, roll out one disk of dough on a lightly floured surface to about 1/4-inch thick. Cut into a 6 x 10″ rectangle. Place on parchment-lined cookie sheet and bake for about 12 minutes. You don’t even need to have golden edges. The cookie should be a little soft to insure that it’s less crumbly when you cut it.

After you remove it from the oven, allow it to cool on the cookie sheet for 10 minutes, then remove to finish cooling on a cooling rack. Roll out the second disk and repeat the process.

Once the cookies have cooled completely, spread one half of the completely cooled shortbread with raspberry jam.

In a small bowl, combine the confectioner’s sugar and heavy cream (or cream and raspberry juice). Stir until smooth. If mixture is runny, add a little more confectioner’s sugar. If the mixture is too thick, add a little more cream. Sprinkle top with freeze-dried raspberry crumbles, pearl sugar, or sprinkles, optional.

Pour the frosting over the top of the second shortbread cookie and smooth to the edges.

Place the frosted shortbread on top of the jam-covered shortbread. Allow to set for at least 20 minutes before cutting.

Slice into five large pieces, or 10 smaller squares. Enjoy!

6Alexandertorte

This dessert is a little on the sweeter side, that’s for sure. Definitely not for those missing their sweet tooth. However, we had it alongside some hot, black coffee, and it was just perfect.

Happy birthday and congrats to my favorite guy of all time!

Canada Day + Butter Tarts

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Today is Canada Day! Similar to our 4th of July in the US, Canada Day is a national holiday that celebrates the anniversary of the Constitution Act of 1867, which united the three provinces of Canada–Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia–into the unified country of Canada. It’s often referred to as “Canada’s birthday.”

So I decided to celebrate our neighbors from the Great White North by making what must be one of their greatest culinary contributions to the world: Butter tarts. Think of a more buttery and less sweet pecan pie, baked into individual tarts. This fine little dessert is one of the few pastries considered truly Canadian.

Having existed for hundreds of years, there is no proof of the exact origin of the butter tart, but there are several theories on when and how the butter tarts were created.

The butter tart is perhaps most closely associated with the filles à marier (marriageable girls), also known as the filles du roi (King’s daughters), a group of nearly 800 young women who were sent to Canada between of the years of 1663 and 1673 as part of a program sponsored by Louis XIV. The program’s intentions were to increase the number of French citizens in “New France” by sending women to marry and have children with the French men who had already settled in Canada, and also to entice more men to immigrate to Canada, whose population at the time would have consisted of many more men than women. The program worked: Over the ten-year period in which the women were sent, New France’s population more than doubled.

It is said that the influx of the King’s daughters caused the invention of the butter tart, since the newly arrived women took on the duties of the home, including cooking, and used local ingredients, such as maple syrup. The butter tart was likely predated by the sugar pie, or tarte au sucre, and eventually raisins and pecans–critical but divisive ingredients in the butter tart–were added later. While today butter tarts are closely associated with the Ontario (English-speaking) area of Canada, and are somewhat similar to the British treacle tart, it might be that the tarts got their start in the French-speaking areas of Canada, such as Quebec, the first of the three ports that the King’s daughters would have been able to disembark.

As with many recipes, butter tarts became especially popular in Canada in the 1920’s and 30’s, after recipes were published in newspapers that reached a much wider group of home bakers. Today they are widely available throughout Canada and an annual Butter Tart festival is held every year in Midland, Ontario.

Even among the most polite Canadians, there are arguments about what makes a true butter tart. Some Canadians are vehemently against the addition of raisins, while others say that it isn’t a true butter tart without them. (To complicate the current raisin-or-no-raisin-argument, recipes printed in the early 20th-century include not raisins, but currants.) Additionally, some think that the filling should be gooey and runny when you bite into it, while others think the filling should be firm.

For the texture of the butter tarts shown here, I split the difference: This filling doesn’t ooze when you bite into it, but it’s not firm either. Also, I went with a pecan topping, and dropped the raisins–maybe I’m just an American with a partiality to pecan pie.

Butter Tart

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Canadian Butter Tarts 
Makes 12 small tarts.

Ingredients: 
Your favorite pie dough, enough to make one bottom crust of a pie. I like this one.
3/4 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup maple syrup
6 tbsp unsalted butter, melted
1/8 tsp salt
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 tsp vanilla
1/2 cup pecans, toasted and chopped, or 1/2 cup raisin, chopped.

Instructions:

Lightly grease one 12-cup cupcake tin and allow to chill in refrigerator as you prepare your butter tart crusts.

Roll out pie pastry to 1/4-inch thick. Cut into 12 circles, 4 1/2-inches in diameter (you want them to be approximately the size of a cupcake liner.)

Press each circle of dough into the cupcake cups, pressing as needed to fit the cup. Return to the refrigerator as you prepare your filling.

If you are using pecans, finely chop and measure after chopping. If using raisins, soak them in hot water for at least fifteen minutes. Drain, pat dry, and chop finely.

Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

In a medium bowl, mix together brown sugar, maple syrup, and melted butter until thoroughly combined. Add in egg and vanilla and mix to combine.

Remove the cupcake tin from refrigerator, and fill the bottom of each tart with finely chopped pecans or raisins.

Fill each tart about halfway with brown sugar mixture. (It will bake up further in the oven.)

Bake tarts for five minutes at 400 degrees. Then, lower the oven to 375 degrees and continue baking for 12-15 minutes, until the top is bubbly and no longer jiggles if you shake the cupcake tin.

Allow the tarts to cool completely in the tin before enjoying.

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The chopped pecans rise to the top of the tart, and become slightly crisp, while there is a gooey, buttery (but not too sweet!) layer underneath. It’s like a less-sweet, individual version of the pecan pie. I am certainly not claiming that this version is as good as anyone in Canada can make. However, if this is any indication of what the Canadian version is like, count me in.

Happy Canada Day!