Happy Halloween + Flies’ Graveyard

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Happy Halloween! This is my favorite, favorite holiday, and I’m so excited. We did go out last Saturday, when it was pouring rain, and today we are waking up to snow, so… welcome to Halloween in the Midwest.

Today we’re going to talk a little bit about the origins of Halloween in the United States, many of which we owe to ancient traditions in Ireland and Scotland. The origins of Halloween can be traced back to the pre-Christian Gaelic festival of Samhain, or summer’s end. While Samhain was determined by the end of the harvest, it was also known as a time when feasts were held for dead loved ones, and the spirits of the Otherworld could enter this world. Because of this belief, bonfires were a common part of a Samhain celebration, as they were thought to protect humans and ward off any evil spirits who crossed the boundary.

Because fire was regarded as protective, in Ireland, root vegetables were carved–mostly turnips in Scotland–into faces, and a light was placed inside to ward off evil spirits. Still used today, the name Jack O’Lantern comes from an Irish legend about a man named “Stingy Jack,” a drunk with such a bad reputation that the devil himself sought him out. According to some variations of the story, Jack twice tricked the devil into buying him food and drink, both times escaping the devil’s plans for him. Tricking the devil again by striking a deal that he would never be taken to Hell, Jack lived to old age. However, at his death, he was turned away from the gates of Heaven for his bad lifestyle. He then attempted to enter Hell, but was also turned away, the devil now keeping his promise to never take him. So Stingy Jack is forced to wander the netherworld for eternity, with only an ember inside of a turnip to light his way.

Even trick-or-treating has its origins in Samhain. Known as “mumming” or “guising,” the practice involved people dressing in costume and going door to door to receive treats. It’s said that the disguises were worn in an attempt to walk among the supernatural beings who had entered the world through the weakened threshold. Later, this became a practice for children, who would go door to door, sometimes performing songs or tricks in exchange for treats or coins.

Over time, with the arrival of Christianity, the celebrations of Samhain began to meld with All Hallow’s Eve, which was the night before the celebration of All Saints’ Day on November 1st. Halloween traditions gained traction in the United States with the mass arrival of Irish and Scottish immigrants in the 19th century.

In honor of the festival of Samhain, today’s recipe is a treat from Britain often called a fruit slice, but alternatively known by the ghoulish name, “flies’ graveyard.” (Maybe Halloween is the only day I could get away with making such a gross and peculiar dessert. Halloween is good for so many reasons.) This dessert, also known as a flies’ cemetery, is called such because the filling, which is usually composed of currants or raisins, looks like dead flies caught in a trap. Yum.

Flies Graveyard

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Flies Graveyard
Makes 9-16 squares.

Ingredients:
For pastry: 1 3/4 cups flour, plus more for rolling dough
1/4 tsp salt
3/4 tsp baking powder
1/2 cup unsalted butter, room temperature
1/2 cup confectioner’s sugar
3/4 tsp lemon zest
3/4 tsp vanilla extract
1 egg

For filling: 2 1/4 cups cranberries
1 1/4 cup dark raisins
1/3 cup water
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 tbsp, plus 2 tsp all-purpose flour
1 tsp lemon juice
1/8 tsp lemon zest
1/8 tsp salt
1/2 tsp vanilla

For top of pastry: 1 egg
1 tbsp milk or cream
2 tsp sugar

Instructions: 

In a medium bowl, sift together flour, salt, and baking soda.

Add butter and sugar to a large bowl and beat until very smooth and almost completely white in color, about five minutes.

Add the lemon zest, vanilla, and egg, and beat until just incorporated.

Add the flour mixture to the sugar mixture in three batches, beating each batch until it’s just incorporated.

After you’ve added all the flour, begin pulling the mixture together. Divide in half. Form both portions into a disk. Wrap the two disks with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 1/2 hours, or as long as overnight.

Place the cranberries into a food processor (you can also chop by hand). Buzz a few times until the cranberries are in smaller pieces, but not yet purified. Add the raisins (if using a food processor) and buzz just a time or two to slightly break up the raisins. Add both to a heavy bottomed saucepan. To the saucepan, add water, sugar, flour, lemon juice, lemon zest, and salt. Mix together and then bring to a boil over medium heat, for about 15 minutes total cook time. Remove from heat and stir in vanilla. Allow to cool to room temperature.

While the filling is cooling, roll out one of the disks 1/8-inch thick and place in the bottom of a 8 x 8-inch pan. Gently press to fit the pan, and cut an edge about 1 centimeter up the sides of the pan. Fill this pastry with the cooled filling and spread smooth.

Roll the second disk 1/8-inch thick. Lay it over the pastry filling. Cut the edges off and gently press to the bottom pastry edges to seal it.

Beat the egg with the heavy cream and brush it over the top. Sprinkle with sugar.

Place the pastry in the freezer as you preheat the oven to 375 degrees. Bake for 30-35 minutes, until the top is golden brown.

Allow to cool completely before cutting and serving.

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For my version of this flies’ graveyard, I used a combination of cranberries and raisins–and fly’s eyes, newt’s noses, frog’s ears, and whatever else was on sale during October.

What are you doing for Halloween this year? Do you have kiddies who are dressed to mingle safely with the wandering ghosts? Did you carve any lanterns in honor of the lost soul of Stingy Jack? Will you catch a few flies in your pastry and bake them up crisp? God I love Halloween. Happy ghouling!

Milwaukee Move + Pumpkin Cream Puffs

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Wow, wow, wow. It’s been a while since I posted here, and I am feeling a little rusty. In the two months (yikes!) since my last post, we moved from Chicago to Milwaukee! So I’ve been trying to get my bearings, trying to unpack, and trying to figure out a new kitchen with new light. But I’m back, baby!

Today, I wanted to talk about one of my favorite childhood snacks: Cream puffs! And it turns out, when it comes to cream puff love, I’m not alone. Apparently cream puffs are big business in Wisconsin. They are a hit at the Wisconsin State Fair, where they sell approximately 400,000 cream puffs each year, and have been selling them since 1924,  when they were first sold by the Wisconsin Bakers Association.

The original cream puff recipe is said to have been created by Charles Kremer, a state bakery inspector who lived on the south side of Milwaukee. At the time, the Governor of Wisconsin, John Blaine, was looking for someone to create a dish that would highlight Wisconsin’s dairy industry at the State Fair. He chose Kremer not only because of his job as a bakery inspector, but also because Kremer’s family had recently opened their own bakery. The cream puff was a hit with fairgoers straightaway, and the rest is history.

In my never-ending quest to find some genealogy-food link between dishes and people, I did a little research on Charles Kremer himself. According to census records, he was born in Rhineland, Germany, in 1865. Rhineland borders France, which may give us a hint why Kremer’s family had a cream puff recipe. Cream puff recipes are actually a version of a French profiterole, a pastry made from choux dough, a buttery, egg-based concoction which incorporates no leavening agent. It is said that the recipe for the dough dates all the way back to the 1500s, when it was created by a Florentine chef named Pantarelli or Pantanelli in the French court of King Henry II and his Italian wife, Catherine de Medici. In the early 1800s, French chef Marie-Antoine Careme modified the recipe, creating a more modern version of the profiterole. (Careme even took it a step further by creating the formidable, towering croquembouche.)

The Kremer-profiterole-cream puff connection is, of course, just a hunch. I’ve found no link between the family and a French profiterole recipe, and it should be noted that the cream puff had been popular in the United States since at least the 1850s, with the dessert even showing up in 1851 on a menu from the Revere House in Boston.

For the cream puffs you see here, I’m using my grandma’s recipe, which turned into my mom’s recipe, and is now my recipe. (As for the famous Wisconsin State Fair cream puff, according to those in the know, the recipe has changed little since 1924, though it has been tweaked to account for production quantities.) But to keep them truly seasonal, these are pumpkin-cream filled puffs, topped with a bit of cinnamon cream cheese glaze. (Or, if you’d prefer, you can just dust them with a little powdered sugar, exactly the way I used to have them as a kid, and they will still be delicious!)

Pumpkin Cream Puffs

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Pumpkin Cream Puffs

Ingredients:
For cream puffs:
1 cup water
1/2 cup butter
1 cup flour
1/4 tsp salt
4 eggs

For pumpkin pudding filling:
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup granulated sugar
1/2 cup pumpkin puree (not pie filling!)
3 tbsp cornstarch
1/8 tsp salt
1/2 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp nutmeg
2 cups whole milk
1/4 cup heavy cream
2 tbsp unsalted butter
1 tsp vanilla

Instructions:

For pumpkin pudding filling: Combine sugars, pumpkin, cornstarch, salt, cinnamon, and nutmeg in a saucepan. Add heavy cream, then begin stirring in milk and turn on stove to medium heat. Stirring constantly, bring mixture to a boil for one minute.

Remove the pan from heat and stir in the butter and vanilla.

Allow to cool slightly before pouring into a heat/refrigerator safe container.

Press plastic wrap directly on to the top of the pudding. Store in the refrigerator until you’re ready to use.

For cream puffs: Preheat oven to 400 degree and line a large cookie sheet with parchment paper.

In a saucepan, combine water and butter and bring to a boil.

Add the flour and salt and stir until the mixture begins to combine and form a ball.

Remove from heat, add to a large glass bowl. Add one egg at a time, stirring to combine. The mixture will slowly come together and, when ready, should be stiff enough to hold the spoon vertical.

Drop 1/4-cup spoonfuls onto the parchment-lined cookie sheet. (I used a pastry bag to pipe them onto the cookie sheet. This step is completely unnecessary, but it makes the puffs slightly more uniform, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Bake for 35 minutes until the puffs are light brown.

Allow cream puffs to cool completely, then poke a hole in one side and pipe the chilled pumpkin pudding into the center. Top with cream cheese glaze, optional. (For cream cheese glaze, combine 4 ounces of room temperature cream cheese, beaten with a few tablespoons of milk, 1/4 cup powdered sugar, 1/2 tsp of vanilla, and 1/4 tsp cinnamon.)

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If you’re looking for more pumpkin fall treat goodness, as well as some sweet pumpkin history, may I direct you to the chocolate ganache-covered pumpkin donuts I made last October. And if you need me, I’ll be looking far ahead to next year’s State Fair where I can pick up a cream puff.

Baked Pumpkin Doughnuts with Spiced Chocolate Glaze

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Clearly, I’m a little late with my first October recipe. We were out of town for three weeks in September and the early part of October, which is a crazy time to be away from your bed (and your kitchen). We’re back now, though, just in time for the chilly weather, which means more incentive for staying in and baking! Also, even though the cold weather is hitting a little early this year, October is still my absolute favorite month for a lot of reasons: 1) It’s family history month 2) Our anniversary is this month! 3) Halloween!!! and 4) Pumpkin everything!!!

Obviously, we have PSLs now, but pumpkins themselves have been an important part of the North American diet for much longer. Pumpkins are a fruit native to the Americas. Seeds of the pumpkin family dating back to between 7000 and 5500 BC have been found in Mexico. In the beginning they were probably used to store items, due to their hearty exterior, but the pumpkin’s high nutritional value and the edibleness of the entire fruit (even the stem) meant it became an important food source. It is thought that about 10,000 years ago, pumpkins, as well as other varieties of squash, were on the verge of extinction. Luckily, the people of the time valued pumpkins enough to domesticate them, which likely led to their survival. Pumpkin, calabeza in Spanish, is still important ingredient in Mexican cuisine too, with dishes from mole to calabeza en tacha, or candied pumpkin, being created using every part of the pumpkin from the flower, to the pepitas, to the flesh.

The name pumpkin is derived from the Greek word for “large melon,” pepon. This changed to “pompon” in French (France became early importers of pumpkins from North America), then into “pumpion” in England, which eventually became the modern word “pumpkin”.

For us in the U.S., pumpkins are associated with autumn, and particularly Thanksgiving. They were likely part of the first Thanksgiving dinner, but probably as a savory dish, instead of the pumpkin pie we are used to today.  Pumpkins, already a staple in the diets of the Wampanoag at the time, were vital to the colonists, who likely wouldn’t have survived winter without them (and many didn’t–by the time of the first Thanksgiving dinner in 1621, more than half of the original colonists had died of starvation or disease).

Sweet pumpkin pies were likely first made in England with pumpkins imported from the States, then adopted by the colonists. France was an early importer of the fruit and recipes for sweet pies date to as early as the 1650’s in France. The earliest recipe for “pumpion pye” in England dates to Hannah Woolley’s The Gentlewoman’s Companion, from 1675.

In the United States, more than 50 million pumpkin pies are consumed during the Thanksgiving holiday, and there is a good chance that the pumpkin you’re eating is from Illinois. Illinois is the top grower of pumpkins in the United States. My friend Jennifer wrote a fascinating piece for Slow Food last year about the Dickinson squash, the heirloom variety of squash that is used by Libby’s, located in Morton, Illinois, for their canned pumpkin puree.

For my recipe today, I decided not to go with a traditional pumpkin pie, but to make pumpkin doughnuts instead. I love doughnuts. LOVE them. But I have noticed, in my early thirties, that I can no longer chow down on fried foods the way that I once did because I get heartburn. (Hi, I’m 100 years old.) With that in mind, these doughnuts are baked, which does mean you have to buy a doughnut pan, but also means you don’t have to deal with doughnut frying clean-up so… win?

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Baked Spiced Pumpkin Donuts with Cinnamon Chocolate Glaze
Makes 12 doughnuts.

Ingredients:
1 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup brown sugar
1 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/2 tsp salt
1 1/2 tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp ginger
1/2 tsp nutmeg
1/2 tsp ground coriander
1/4 tsp ground clove
3/4 cup buttermilk
1 egg
1/2 cup pumpkin puree
1/2 tsp vanilla
3 tbsp unsalted butter, browned

For chocolate glaze:
1/2 cup heavy whipping cream
8 oz. chopped semi-sweet chocolate
1 tsp cinnamon
1/8 tsp cayenne powder, optional

Instructions:

Move a rack to the top 2/3 of the oven. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.

In a medium bowl, mix the flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, coriander, and clove. Set aside.

In a small skillet or saucepan, heat 3 tablespoons of unsalted butter until browned. You’ll know it’s done when it’s changed in color, it smells nutty, and it has stopped “popping”. Allow to cool.

In a large bowl, beat the buttermilk and egg together thoroughly. Stir in the pumpkin puree. Stir in only 2 tablespoons of the browned butter.

Add the dry ingredients to the wet mixture and stir until everything is just combined. Don’t overmix, or your doughnuts could come out chewy.

Lightly grease two 6-doughnut pan, fill each indentation 3/4 of the way full. Bake for 4 minutes, turn pan 180 degrees, and continue to bake for 4 more minutes.

Allow the doughnuts to rest in the pan for about 5 minutes, before removing to a cooling rack. Repeat with additional batter.

To make glaze, heat the whipping cream until it’s just starting to steam, but not yet boil.

Put the chocolate in a heat-proof bowl, and pour the hot cream over the chocolate. Allow to sit for 5 minutes, then mix the chocolate into the cream until full combined.

Add the cinnamon, and cayenne if you don’t mind a little spice.

Dip the bottom half of each doughnut into the bowl, twisting until it is covered by chocolate.

Enjoy!

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Warning: You will be tempted to eat all of these doughnuts straight from the oven, before they’ve properly cooled, and before you glaze them. While you won’t be disappointed because the doughnuts are pretty great on their own, I highly suggest you try them with the glaze. Pumpkin-chocolate is a genius combination, maybe because both ingredients originated from the same area? On top of that, these doughnuts are not only scrumptious, they are essentially Halloween-colored. And I’m a big proponent of delicious foods, color-coordinated with my favorite holidays. I hope you are too. Happy October, and happy baking!

Pumpkin Indian Pudding

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November 13th was Indian pudding day. Who is coming up with these days, really? Honestly, I had no idea what hasty pudding or Indian pudding were three weeks ago. New Englanders are probably more familiar with this dish than the rest of the country. Being from the Midwest, I had never seen a recipe of this dish, let alone tasted it. I studied up, though, and here’s what I learned. Hasty pudding was first brought to America by the English colonists. The original version was probably more like a “porridge,” made with flour and water, rather than cornmeal and milk. It was likely sparingly sweetened, if at all.

When the colonists arrived in North America, the dish transformed into what became known as Indian pudding or Indian mush, thanks to the substitution of New World ingredients. After the American Indians showed the colonists how to cultivate corn, cornmeal was more plentiful in the colonies than the traditional flour. Because of this “hasty pudding” became “Indian pudding.” And, because of the abundance of milk, it was used instead of water, which thickened the dish to something more like pudding or custard and less like, well, gruel.

As I was looking at several different recipes, I noticed that this dish was often referred to as “porridge” or “mush.” Not the most appetizing description. When I started looking at some of the ingredients, “eggs, milk, molasses, cinnamon,” etc., I thought, well, none of this sounds that bad. And I was right!

In honor of the colonists who changed their old recipe to work in their new land, I decided to put a spin on this traditional dish with another New World ingredient, pumpkin. (No, not pumpkin spice. Just pumpkin.)

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Pumpkin Indian Pudding
Serves 4-6

Pumpkin Indian Pudding Ingredients:
1 1/4 cups whole milk
1/3 cup cornmeal
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 tsp salt
1 1/4 cup canned pumpkin
1 large egg
1/3 cup packed brown sugar
1/4 cup molasses
1 tsp vanilla
2 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp ginger
2 tbsp unsalted butter, melted and cooled

Pumpkin Indian Pudding Instructions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Butter a 1 quart baking dish. Set aside.

To a medium bowl, add the pumpkin, egg, brown sugar, molasses, vanilla, cinnamon, and ginger. Stir until smooth. Set aside.

In a medium saucepan, whisk together the cornmeal, flour, salt, and milk. Try to get out any large clumps before turning on the heat. Turn on stove and continue to whisk for about 5-10 minutes, until the mixture just starts to boil. Turn off the stove and continue to whisk for about a minute. Add in the butter and continue to stir until it’s completely melted.

Add the cornmeal mixture to the pumpkin mixture in the bowl. To make sure the eggs don’t scramble, add a little of the hot mixture in and stir quickly to temper the eggs. Stir together until smooth.

Pour into your baking dish and then place the baking dish on a cookie sheet.

Cook at 350 degrees for 15 minutes. Then, turn the oven down to 325 degrees and continue baking for 1 hour and 15 minutes. This dish does best without the oven door opening and closing. If you’re really itching to check on it, try to do so only once or twice.

Allow it to cool for about 10 minutes before serving. Even after that, it will still be quite hot. Once removed from the oven, the surface will look a bit dry and may even be cracking a little. That’s perfect. Once you scoop into it, you will notice that it’s actually not dry at all. Also, don’t be surprised if it deflates a little after you take it out of the oven.

I highly suggest adding some vanilla ice cream, or whipped cream, while it’s still warm.

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The amount of time you need for cooking this does not exactly make this hasty. The original flour-based dish was much hastier. With the addition of the cornmeal, a longer cooking time is needed for the cornmeal to absorb more liquid, which results in a thicker, creamier texture.

The addition of pumpkin makes this the perfect dish for fall and early (*cringe*) winter. As Alex and I were eagerly scooping it into our mouths, we came up with this description: something between pumpkin pie, without the crust, and a gingerbread cookie. Sold yet?

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